Stunting, underweight, and overweight are current health issues in Indonesia. We aimed to examine potential associated risk factors with stunting, underweight, and at risk of overweight/overweight or obesity in Indonesian children aged 2.0-4.9 years.
This is a secondary data analysis of children in waves 1 to 4 (1993-2007) of the Indonesian Family Life Survey, a longitudinal, nationally representative survey of households involving both questionnaires and anthropometry. Potential risk factors for childhood malnutrition were categorized into child, parental/ household and community level factors. Multivariate Generalised Linear Latent and Mixed Models was used to determine factor associated with all the three forms of malnutrition.
4101 children had complete records in all four waves. The multivariate analysis generated similar results for under nutrition. Associated risk factors for a higher probability of being stunted or underweight included lower birth weight (<2.5 kg), being breastfed for 6 months or more, having a mother or father who was underweight or short-statured, and mothers who never attended formal education. The likelihood of being stunted was also higher when a child lived in a rural area (all P<0.05). Children were more likely to be at risk, or overweight/obese if they were in the youngest age group (2·0-2·9 years), male, had parents who were overweight/obese and fathers with high formal education (university or more) (all P<0.05).
Parental nutritional status and education level are associated with all three forms of malnutrition, and should be considered in future intervention/management plans.