Studies comparing of differences between healthy weight and overweight/obese individuals provide a useful starting point for the identification of factors relevant to long term weight loss outcomes. One factor that has received increasing attention is self-regulation, which includes impulsivity, inhibition, attentional bias, planning and self-monitoring. However, while previous reviews have shown differences in self-regulation between weight groups, the role of self-regulation in predicting weight loss outcomes has not been systematically investigated. The aim of the current review and meta-analysis is to examine the capacity of the self-regulation to predict subsequent weight loss and in weight loss maintenance among overweight and obese individuals. Systematic searches of electronic databases identified seven papers with sufficient available data to be included in meta-analysis. The average sample size weighted correlation between self-regulation and weight loss was 0.29 (95% CI: 0.2003 to 0.3849, P < 0.0001), indicating that poorer self-regulation at baseline is associated with poorer weight loss outcomes. Understanding of the relationship between self-regulation and weight loss outcome may help to explain differential effects of weight loss interventions and provides an important avenue for future research and intervention.